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Glossary of Terms
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z 


A

abdomen Frontal, middle aspect of torso, between pubic bone and ribs
abdominals Muscles found within the abdomen, including rectus abdominus, external oblique, internal oblique
abducted /abduction Movement of a limb away from the mid-line of the body or another body part or laterally.
abductor machine abductor machine

An apparatus that resists against the leg as you lift your leg towards away from your body from a standing position to a wide-leg position .

Note: The same apparatus can also be changed to work as an adductor machine by manipulating the position of pins to cause resistance in a different direction.

abductor muscles Muscles of the outer hip that is responsible for lifting your leg away from the body
adducted /adduction Movement of a limb inwards towards the midline of the body or another body part or medially.
acceleration In physics, acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity, or as the second derivative of position (with respect to time). It is then a vector quantity with dimension length/time². In SI units, acceleration is measured in meters/second² (ms-2). In other words it is an increase of motion or action.
adductor machine

adductor machineAn apparatus that resists against the leg as you contract your leg towards your body from a wide-leg position to the standing with legs together position.

Note: The same apparatus can also be changed to work as an abductor machine by manipulating the position of pins to cause resistance in a different direction.

aerobic Brisk exercise that promotes the circulation of oxygen through the blood. Examples include running, jogging, and swimming.
alternate To change between ie. change (alternate) arms
anaerobic Low impact exercises and stretches that do not promote the circulation of oxygen through the blood. Eg. yoga, tai chi
anatomy

The study of the structure (or form) of the body - it's parts and how they fit together.

angular momentum

The ‘hidden’ force inside an object which is accelerating constantly due to constant changes in direction - because it is traveling along a curved path, or in a circle. Objects with angular momentum attempt to conserve the relationship between their speed, their weight and the radius of the curve along which they are traveling. This is called the ‘Conservation of Angular Momentum’.

anterior Referring to the front of your body or body part or the front half of the body in the coronal plane.
anterior tilt Forward tilt, or forward positioning of structure
apparent force

The visible effect of a force which has been transferred from one object to another when they interact. For example, the effect which a golf club has on a golf ball is ‘apparent’.

apex Highest point, or furthest point from reference
articulated To unite by forming a joint or joints.
asymmetrical When the shape of an object is different on both sides of its mid-line.
axillae line lateral armpit or underarm area

 


B


back extension bench back extension bench
balance

Balance in golf: The ability of the neuromuscular system to maintain the optimum alignment and center of gravity during biomechanical rotation in a golf swing.

Balance in general: The ability of an object to stay upright or avoid being tipped over. Maintaining balance involves readjusting the body's weight by using the muscles to perform, often tiny, movements (especially in the feet) which take up any changes in the body's centre of gravity. Sometimes these movements involve moving the limbs to act as counter-weights.

Balance is easiest when an object's 'point of balance' is directly below its centre of gravity, however, balance can usually be maintained as long as the 'point of balance' is anywhere within the objects 'base of support' - a triangle shaped area below the centre of gravity.

base of support

The area below an object's centre of gravity (COG) which allows it to stand without losing balance - or tipping. The base of support is usually triangular in shape, getting wider the lower it is below the COG. For example, a person standing with both feet wide apart is able to withstand being tipped over better than a person standing with both feet together - or on one foot. Basically, the lower an object's base of support (and the more central it is), the more balanced the object will be - and the less easily it will tip over. The best place for balance is along the mid-line of the 'base of support'.

The closer the COG is to the mid-line of the 'base of support' the more easily a body can be balanced. This is what is sometimes referred to as the 'Centre of Balance'. The further away it is from the mid-line of the 'base of support', the more difficult balance becomes. In some cases, trying to maintain balance when the COG and the mid-line of the base of support are far apart can lead to strain on the biomechanical system. And, if the COG of an object gets too far away from its 'base of support', it will lose its balance and fall over.

basket hang Exercise performed taking your body weight on your forearms with your feet off the floor.
bilaterally Pertaining to both sides of body
biomechanical fault Fault due to abnormal biomechanics within the body
biomechanics

The study of the mechanics of a living body, especially of the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on the skeletal structure. The mechanics of a part or function of a living body, such as of locomotion. In this program "biomechanics" is referring to the movement of your muscles and skeletal structure during the rotation of the golf swing and the forces affecting them like centre of balance and gravity.

A biomechanical fault is due to abnormal biomechanics within the body.

bones Rigid structures composed of calcium, minerals, collagen and other compuonds which act primarily to provide a skeletal framework for the body. There are 206 bones in your body.
buttocks / bottom / posterior The lowest part of the torso which you sit on.
Backswing When the golfer takes the club away from the addressed ball, continues until the club is moved back towards to ball.
barbell Bar with two round weights on either end and is held by both hands on the bar. More weights can be added to the bar.

 


C

caudal

The lower half of the body in the transverse plane.

centre of balance (COB)

A line, directly below the body's centre of gravity, along which the body can be most easily balanced. It varies in people but, generally, is located in line with the front of the second sacral segment. In this course it refers to the biomechanical mid-line of the body's 'base of support' and the way in which the body maintains the alignment of this line during a golf swing.

Different body sections may have their own centres of balance. For example, if the upper torso (and head) has a very different centre of balance from the lower torso, a conflict is created between the two - and the biomechanical system has work to overcome for this. Overcoming such a 'balance conflict' requires extra effort - which may lead to stress and early fatigue - or even strain and injury.
centre of gravity (COG)

Centre of Gravity (or COG) - The point at which the weight of an object is equal in all directions. The 'mid-point' of a body's weight – or the 'average point' of an object's weight distribution.

COG

In this course, the term 'COG' is often used interchangeably with the term 'Centre of Balance' (COB), however, an object's 'COB' can be below its COG – anywhere along the mid-line of the object's 'base of support'.

cervical Pertaining to the neck region
cervical spine Series of vertebrae which make up the spinal column in the neck region. It comprises 7 vertebrae named C1 to C7, from top to bottom
chili dipping When the top of the ball is struck by the bottom of the club, causing it to jump straight up and plonk back down.
coccygeal spine

(Coccyx or Tailbone) made of between 3 and 5 fused small bones.

compensation An attempt by the body to re-adjust its weight distribution in response to a shift in the body's centre of gravity (or balance) - normally located at the base of the spine, in the sacrum. This shift in the COG may be due to a bone misalignment or muscle imbalance in some other part of the body.
concave Projecting inwards, the area within a curve
contact force The force transferred between two objects when they interact by contacting each other. For example, a golf club hitting a golf ball.
contractile tissues

More often referred to as muscle cells. Specialist cells in the body which have the ability to stretch and shorten in length. By contracting (and shortening) they are able to move bones at the joints. By stretching (getting longer) they release joints and allow them to move.

convex Projecting outwards, the area outside a curve
coronal plane

The imaginary plane which divides the body into two halves - upper and lower (cranial and caudal).

coronal spine distortion

A spine distortion which affects the front to back (anterior to posterior) alignment of the vertebrae. For example, a kyphosis (an over-rounded convex curve of the thoracic spine causing 'rounded shoulders') or a lordosis (an over-rounded concave curve in the lumbar spine causing a 'sway-back').

coronal tilt

The angle at which the spine and hips are tilted forward during the set-up and the swing. The coronal tilt should remain almost constant throughout the swing.

cranial

The top half of the body in the transverse plane.

cumulative stress

When several different forms of stress combine - often resulting in the development of strain which exceeds the body's 'elastic limits' - causing damage to biomechanical system.

 


D

dumbell Hand weight
draw To induce topspin onto the ball causing in to move from outside to in on your swing and is the opposite to fade.
divot A piece of turf lifted when ball is struck - typically on fairway, played to create backspin.
dipping / reverse tilt / lack of power Lack of power during a golf swing where the golfer is not be able to correctly rotate the hips and have poor balance.
distant force

The force transferred between two objects when they interact without contacting each other. For example, the effect of gravity on a golf ball traveling through the air.

distortion

A change to the normal shape or position of a bone, joint, muscle or body part.

dorsiflexor muscle A dorsiflexior muscle is used for the movement at the ankle joint in trying to bring the foot in proximity to the leg.

 


E

effort

The amount of energy or force which is put into moving an object with a lever.

elastic limit The threshold of strain for the biomechanical system. Up to the 'elastic limit' the body is able to repair and even benefit from any stress placed on it. Beyond the 'elastic limit' the biomechanical system is being placed under strain which can lead to damage - often permanent.
elevate / elevated To lift up
explosive stress

When the body goes beyond its elastic limit due to a single incident which causes damage to biomechanical system.

extremeties Arms and legs
extrinsic muscles Muscles that originate outside of the body part on which they act.
extension Movement of straightening a joint or bending the spine backwards
external auditory meatus The outer ear (external part of ear that is visible)
extensor muscles A skeletal muscle whose contraction causes the straightening or stretching of a limb or other body part.

 


F

facet joint The facet joints are small joints that are located on the back of the spine with one on each side. Each vertebra is connected by facet joints and they provide stability to the spine by interlocking two vertebrae together.
fade To induce backspin onto the ball causing it to travel through the air following inside to out swing and is the opposite to draw.
fat (hitting) When the club strikes the ground well behind the ball.
Fine Motor Skills

Movements of minor and small limbs (fingers, hands and toes etc) which is required for performance of Fine Motor Skills such as writing, cutting or re-balancing (especially in the feet).

flat feet

Flat Feet (or 'Fallen Arches') - Caused when one or more of the foot's three arches collapses due to an injury, weakness or muscle imbalance.

When the foot 'flattens' the arch (which is on the inside of each foot) collapses and the foot rolls inwards. This turns the ankle inwards and forces the soles to point outwards. This is called a 'pronation' of the foot.

'Flat feet' can be examined in 3 main ways.

  • Method 1 - By having the person stand on a flat hard floor and observing the inside of each foot to see if it has a raised arch. Two fingers should be able to fit in the space created by each arch.
  • Method 2 - By having the person stand on a flat hard floor and observing the ankles from behind (as shown in the diagrams below). Normally, the feet should be vertically aligned (at 90 degrees) to the feet, at the ankles. If there is a pronation the ankle will be tilted inwards and the sole will be tilted away outwards. If the sole faces inwards it is called a 'supination'.

Flat Feet diagram

  • Method 3 - By examining the individual's shoes to see where the greatest ware has occurred. A 'pronation' would mean more ware on the insides of the soles – especially at the heels, where most of the weight is supported. A 'supinated' ankle would mean greater ware on the outside of the shoes.
flat pelvis Pelvis which has little or no forward tilt
flex / flexion / flexed Decreasing the angle between two points
flexibility Flexibility is a joint's ability to move freely through a full and normal range of motion. In this program flexibility mainly refers to the ability to move correctly in the rotation of a golf swing.
Flexor muscle A flexor muscle is one which decreases the angle between two bones. For example, bending the arm at the elbow or raising the leg toward the stomach.
force The amount of energy transferred from one object to another during an interaction. Calculated by the formula; Force = Mass x Acceleration, it is measured in units called Newtons.
fulcrum

A pivot or hinge through which an effort can be transferred to a load via a lever.

 

 


G

gluteal muscles / glutes Primarily pertains to the gluteus maximus muscle, which forms the bulk of the buttocks shape. Other gluteal muscles include gluteus medius and gluteus minimus
gradual strain

When the body goes beyond its elastic limit due to the gradual accumulation of stresses until they create strain - causing damage to biomechanical system.

Gross Motor Skills

Movements of major limbs (arms, legs, etc) which is required for the performance of Gross Motor Skills - such as kicking, throwing or hitting.

gyroscope

A heavy fixed wheel spinning at high speed which generates a large amount of angular momentum. This angular momentum creates a resistance to any change in the gyroscope's position - because of the Law of 'Conservation of Angular Momentum'.

 


H

Hamstring Leg MusclesA hamstring refers to one of the tendons that make up the borders of the space behind the knee in the leg. The hamstrings cross and act upon two joints - the hip and the knee. The three muscles of the posterior (or back) thigh (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) flex (bend) the knee, while three of the four other muscles extend (straighten) the hip.
Herniated disk  Slipped disc (medical term: prolapsed intervertebral disc) is a condition in which, due to a tear in the outer fibrous ring, the central part of the intervertebral disc is protruding into the spinal canal. Most commonly this occurs in the lowermost part of the spine, especially between the fourth and fifth vertebral bodies and between the fifth vetrebral body and the sacrum. This protrusion usually occurs to one side of the spinal canal, at the point where a nerve root leaves the canal.
hidden force A force which has not yet become 'apparent'. This energy has not been transferred to another object because there has been no interaction. For example, the inertia of a stationary object or the momentum of a moving object - before they have interacted with any other objects. The force exists but it is not yet visible - therefore it remains 'hidden' until an interaction occurs.
hip bones

The two separate bones found on either side of the pelvis. Together with the sacrum, they help form the bowl shaped structure called the pelvis. The sacrum forms the keystone at the top (and back) of the pelvic arch and keeps the two hip-bones separated, aligned and level. If the sacrum was not able to support the hip-bones they would flounder.

hip flexor Muscles which act to flex the body at the hips
hook /hooking To induce topspin onto the ball causing in to move from outside to in on your swing and is the opposite to a slice.
Hook-lying Position in which you are on your back, arms by your side, knees and hips flexed to approximately 90 degrees
Hypertonic Increased muscle tone beyond the normal
Hypotonic Decreased muscle tone beyond the normal

 


I

imbalance Without balance, unequal
inertia

The 'hidden' energy held within a stationary object due to its weight (or mass).

intrinsic muscles Refer to deeper lying muscles within body
Ipsilateral On same side as point of reference

 


J

    

 


K

Kyphosis Natural posterior curve of spine ie. thoracic curve
Kinesthetic memory Kinesthetic memory is the awareness of one's orientation in space, and the way the body and muscles move without having to no longer think about the movement as repetion of that momement is remembered by the body parts and mucles.
kinetic energy

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. An object which has motion - whether it be vertical or horizontal motion - has kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy of an object is the extra energy which it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its current velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. Negative work of the same magnitude would be required to return the body to a state of rest from that velocity.

kinetic link principle

Reaching the very high ‘end-point’ speeds needed for golf, requires the sequential acceleration (and then deceleration) of a series of adjoining links. As each link slows down it passes it’s momentum onto the next until, the final link in the chain receives the accumulated energy from all those before it. This is the Kinetic Link Principle and, to achieve it, requires the muscles at each stage in the series to ‘fire’ in a very specific sequence.

Kinetic links in golf can are the elbows, the wrists, the knees or the ankles.

 


L

lateral Towards the side or towards the outside of the body's sagittal plane.
lateral trunk Side of the trunk
laws of motion

Sir Isaac Newton was the first person to bring together many of the ideas about the Physics of moving objects.
He did this by coming up with the three 'Laws of Motion' which are explained over the next few pages. These Laws are;

  • Newton's First Law -The Laws of Inertia and Momentum
  • Newton's Second Law -The Laws of Acceleration
  • Newton's Third Law -The Laws of Interaction
levator scapulae Mucle located in the posterior neck region
lever

A device (usually a rigid bar) which can be used to transfer a given effort to a desired load with some kind of an advantage - known as a mechanical advantage. Levers may be classified as either Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3.

  • Class 1 levers have their fulcrums in the middle - between the effort and the load.
  • Class 2 levers have their load in the middle - between the fulcrum and the effort.
  • Class 3 levers have their effort in the middle - between the fulcrum and the load.
ligament A sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs
linked transfer Transfer of energy by the kinetic link priciple through linked body parts through the muscles.
load The amount of force which can be exerted by a lever from a given amount of effort.
locomotion Refers to motion or movement of some kind
locomotor Object or muscle which acts to move body ie. attain locomotion
lordosis Natural anterior curve of spine ie. lumbar curve
lumbar/ lumbar spine Pertaining to the lower back, beneath the ribs. The section of the spine between the thoracic spine and the sacral spine. It comprises 5 vertebrae named L1 to L5, from top to bottom.
lumbar vertebrae Area of the spine in the lower back, beneath the ribs. There are 5 lumbar vertebrae. The lumbar vertebrae are situated between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacral vertebrae in the spinal column. The 5 lumbar vertebrae are represented by the symbols L1 through L5.

 


M

mass The force transferred between two objects when they interact by contacting each other. For example, a golf club hitting a golf ball.
mechanical advantage

The amount by which effort (to move a load) is improved when using a lever.

medial Towards the mid-line of the body's sagittal plane.
misalignment

When two adjacent bones are not joined in the correct position at the joint. This makes movement of the joint difficult and also places pressure on the muscles on either side of it. On one side the muscles become over-stretched and on the other they become under-stretched - causing a muscle imbalance.

momentum

The 'hidden' energy held within a moving object due to its weight (or mass) and its speed (or velocity).

muscle imbalance Position in which muscles in an agonist/ antagonist relationship, or bilateral muscles do not have equal tone, and thus are imbalanced
muscle pairing

When two muscles have to work in unison to allow the smooth movement of a joint. While one muscle contracts, to create a desired movement, the other (paired) muscle has to relax in order to allow the desired movement to proceed. If the paired muscle does not relax and extend, the desired movement will be impaired.

muscles musclesContractile tissues used for many physiological functions, but primarily assist in movement
muscle strain  An injury that damages the internal structure of the muscle. It is a partial tear of some of the small fibers that make up the muscle.
musculoskeletal system Body system comprised of skeletal bones and muscles which has many functions but acts primarily to attain locomotion and balance. If any part of this system is not in alignment then a musculoskeletal imbalace will occur causing postural faults. Ie. the system of bones which support the body, the muscles which move them and the tissues which join the two together

 


N

neuromuscular system  relating to nerves and the muscles they stimulate
Newton

The units by which force is measures - named after Sir Issac Newton, the 'father' of modern Physics. 1 Newton is the force required to move a 1 Kg weight, 1 metre in 1 second.

 


O

oblique /oblique direction Direction at 90 degrees
occipital bone The bone that forms the back of the skull including the rear and the rear bottom of the skull. It encloses a large oval hole, the foramen magnum, the opening through which the spinal cord becomes continuous with the brain.
orthotics Structures used to correct foot position imbalances and affect posture. A mold is taken of the feet and from that tailor-made inserts are created to put in the shoes to correct posture.

 


P

pec / pectoralis Upper chest muscles attached to the front of the chest wall and extending to the upper arms and under the breast area. They are divided into the pectoralis major and the pectoralis minor muscles.
pec dec machine A weight resistance training machine that enables unilateral and bilateral chest, back, and shoulder conditioning.
pelvis / pelvic / pelvic arch

iliumThe pelvis is a bowl shaped structure made up of the two hip bones separated by the sacrum. The pelvis has two separate halves which can act independently if not stablised by the sacrum. The sacrum forms the keystone at the top (and back) of the pelvis - keeping both halves separated, aligned and level. The bowl shape of the pelvis helps hold the organs of the abdomen in place.

Pelvic arch - the opening at the back of the pelvis, between the two hips. This gap is filled by the sacrum which acts as a keystone for the pelvis - keeping the whole bone rigid and stable.

physiology The study of the way the parts of the body function (or work) - both individually - and in combination with each other.
posterior Referring to the back of your body or body part or the back half of the body in the coronal plane.
posture Attitude of body as expressed by the musculoskeletal system
posture distortion When the body is forced to adopt a posture which is not 'normal', in order to compensate for an imbalance in the musculoskeletal system. Often associated with incorrect spinal curves - either 'Coronal Spine Distortions' (changes to the angles of the Thoraic, Lumbar or Sacral spines) or 'Sagittal Spine Distortions' (left-right misalignments of the spine).
posture fault Fault within the posture of the body
projectile An object designed to be moved in a certain direction by a force which has be applied to it. (e.g. a golf ball, a bullet, a rocket or an arrow). The angle at which a projectile leaves its original position (or is launched) is called its 'trajectory'.
pronated position The act of turning the palm or palmar surface of the forefoot downward. That motion of the forearm whereby the palm or palmar, surface is turned downward.The position of the limb resulting from the act of pronation.
pull When the ball flies in an inward direction after being stuck. Not the same as draw / hook as these are shots affected by spin.
push When the ball flies in an outward direction after being stuck. Not the same as fade / slice as these are shots affected by spin.
Physics

The study of the forces and interactions which occur between objects - either through direct contact or over a distance. Originally referred to as the Laws of Statics and Dynamics they are now dealt with by Newton's Three Laws of Motion - often known as the Laws of Physics.

Laws of Physics - The 3 basic Laws set down by Newton. The 1st Law has to do with the way force causes movement. The 2nd Law has to do with force causing objects to accelerate and the 3rd Law has to do with how objects interact with each other.

Physiology

The study of the way the parts of the body function (or work) - both individually - and in combination with each other.

 


Q

    

 


R

radioulnar joint The radio-ulnar joint's axis is an oblique line that connects the superior and inferior radio-ulnar joints in the arm.

 


S

sacral spine

The final section of the spine between the lumbar spine and pelvis. It comprises 5 fused vertebrae named S1 to S5, from top to bottom.

sacrum

Large triangular area of spine at base of spinal column, above the coccyx and in line with the hips. The sacrum acts as the body's centre of balance.

sacro-iliac joint or S-I joint iliumThe S-I joint is the Sacro-iliac joint - where the ‘sacrum’ meets the ‘ilium’ (or pelvis) which are joined by ligaments. Even more simply, it is where the spine meets the pelvis. It is a strong, weight bearing synovial joint with irregular elevations and depressions that produce interlocking of the bones.
sagittal plane The imaginary plane which divides the body into two halves - right and left (side to side).
sagittal spine distortion A spine distortion which affects the left to right (lateral) alignment of the vertebrae. For example, a scoliosis of the spine.
sagittal tilt The angle at which the spine is tilted to one side during the set-up and the swing. The sagittal tilt should begin with a slight lean towards the back-swing side and finish, almost, vertical after the follow through.
scoliosis Lateral deviation of of spinal column (curvature of spine)
shoulder blades

Two large flat bones of the shoulder on either side of the upper back connected to your arms and to which the humerus is articulated...the scapula.

skeleton / skeletal system skeletonFramework of bones providing support for your body. There are approximately 206 bones in your body (depending on what is included in the count as some bones are grouped).
Skinny (hitting) To strike the ball above it's centre causing it to skip and bounce along the ground rather than rise through the air.
slice / slicing To induce too much backspin onto the ball causing it to travel through the air following inside to out swing and is the pposite to hooking.
Smith Machine smith machineApparatus with a bar fixed to the side supports and can only move vertically up or down, therefore being of support when executing moves where your body weight is not centred. The weight is adjustable on the bar.
spinal curve

Definition 1: Natural antero/ posterior curves of spine ie. kyphosis, lordosis... a spinal distortion

Definition 2: The correct angles of curvature for the three largest sections of the spine are; Thoracic Spinal Curve (35 degrees), Lumbar Spinal Curve (40 degrees) and Sacral Spinal Curve (45 degrees). These curve angles refer to the coronal (front to back) plane of the body. Therefore, distortions in either of these spinal curves can be referred to as 'Coronal Spine Distortions'.

In the sagittal plane (from right to left) the spine should be perfectly vertical. Any variation from this can be called a 'Sagittal Spine Distortion' (e.g. a scoliosis).

Either Coronal or a Sagittal Spine Distortions can cause changes in the body's centre of gravity and can lead to 'posture distortions'. Spine distortions may be due to faults in the spine itself, or to misalignments in any of the structures which support the spine - the feet, the pelvis or the sacrum. They may also be caused by imbalances in any of the muscles which support these structures.

spinal scoliotic curve Lateral curvature of spine which is not natural
spine

spineA series of between 31 and 34 (varies with method of counting) bones (called vertebrae) - separated by inter-vertebral discs - which provide the central supporting structure for the body. It forms the spinal canal which carries the spinal cord, the major connection in the body's neurological system. The spine is divided into 3 sections: cervical, thoracic, and lumbar (lower back).

spine angle spine angle The optimum positioning of your spine in your golf posture that will enable an optimum and accurate golf swing. In an optimum swing the angle of the spine remains constant throughout the swing until the follow-through. Deviations from the optimum spine angle will cause a swing fault. The correct posture should have a spine angle of 30 degrees.
stability

The tendency for an object to keep traveling in the same direction - or along the same line.

strain

Strain (mechanics): the deformation of materials caused by stress induced by applied forces.

Strain (injury):, an injury to a muscle in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of over stretching

stress

Physical stress: A force that produces strain on a physical body.

Stress in Physics: Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. It is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internal surfaces, as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces.

supinated position Applied to the hand, the act of turning the palm forward (anteriorly) or upward, performed by lateral rotation of the forearm. Applied to the foot, it generally implies movements resulting in raising of the medial margin of the foot, hence of the longitudinal arch.

Swing

swingThe action of hitting the golf ball with the golf club which includes the takeaway, backswing, downswing, and follow through.

The perfect swing will have a swing arc that travels along the ideal swing plane that does not deviate from that swing plane and with a swing path travelling straight at the target.

swing arc

correct and incorrect swing arcThe swing arc is the arc the club head travels along during a golf swing. A swing path is dictated by the arc the clubhead follows during a golf swing!  The arc starts in the takeaway and works around the body until the clubhead reaches the top of the swing. As the club head works back down to the ball toward the target the club 'should' follow the same arc down. When the bottom of the arc reaches the impact zone the arc dictates what path the club will follow. 

This diagram illustrate both the incorrect and incorrect swing arc. The incorrect swing arc is indicated by the blue line with arrows (that deviates in and/or out of the swing plane), and the faded golfer (dressed in blue) with the purple line with arrows shows the correct swing arc travelling along the correct swing plane.

swing path

 The direction the clubhead is moving towards the target in the impact zone during a golf swing. When the bottom of the swing arc of the downswing reaches the impact zone the arc dictates what path the club will follow. The swing path at impact can be either travelling right, left or straight at the target.

Swing paths that move too far left 'or' right of the target line are considered to be caused by faults in posture, set-up or the swing motion.

See the diagram below in "swing plane."

swing plane

 A swing plane is the angle that the shaft of the club travels around the body during a golf swing.

Take-away
Down-swing
Follow-through

The above 3D illustrations show the swing plane in blue shading and blue line and the swing arc in red.
The yellow arrow indicates the swing path pointing towards the target.

 

 

swiss ball  swiss ball
symmetrical

When the shape of an object is exactly the same on both sides of its mid-line.

 


T

tendon A cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment.
thermo-band Approximately 1 metre length of elastic band that can be stretched to give extra resistance in exercises and stretches.
thin (hitting) To strike the ball above it's centre causing it to skip and bounce along the ground rather than rise through the air.
thoracic spine Upper back area behind the chest. The section of the spine between the cervical spine and the lumbar spine. It comprises 12 vertebrae named T1 to T12, from top to bottom.
thorax /thoracic Region of torso above abdomen and beneath shoulders, most easily visualised by the ribs...chest area
torso Trunk area of the body...between neck and pelvis
trajectory

The angle at which a projectile has been launched. Usually the most effective trajectory for a projectile, to gain the greatest distance, is 45 degrees.

transverse plane The imaginary plane which divides the body into two halves - front and back (anterior and posterior).
trapezius Muscles from back of nech and shoulders spreading to the mid back area in the thoracic spine area.
trunk Area of the body consisting of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis.

 


U

    

 


V

  velocity

The speed of an object - usually measured in metres per second for scientific studies.

 


W

    

 


X

    

 


Y

    

 


Z

    

SOURCES AND REFERENCES

The following sources and references were used in the glossary or terms and throughout the site.

Medical Sources / References

MedTerms.com http://www.medterms.com/Script/Main/hp.asp

Medical Dictionary http://medical-dictionary.com/

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/

Carolyn Kinser, Lyn Allen Colby; Therapeutic Exercise, Foundations and Techniques; Third Edition, FA Davis Company Publishing, Philadelphia, 1996.

Lucille Daniels, Catherine Worthingham: Therapeutic Exercise, For Body Alignment and Function; WB Saunders Company Publishing, Philadelphia, 1977.

Florence Peterson Kendall, Elithabeth Kendall McCreary, Patricia Geise Provance; Muscles- Testing and Function; Fourth Edition; Williams and Wilkins Publishing, Maryland, 1993.

John V. Basmajian; Therapeutic Exercise, Student Edition; Williams and Wilkins Publishing, Maryland, 1980.

Human Anatomy Online http://www.innerbody.com/

Golf Sources

Dictionary of Golf Terms (used for Get Fit To Golf glossary of terms golf definitions)
http://www.golfeurope.com/almanac/golf_terms/dictionary.htm

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